Periodontal Status of Smoker and Nonsmoker between the Workers at El kubaisa Factory of Cement

Mohammed I. Abdullah, Shakir Mahmood Ali, Jassim Ali Jassim

Abstract


Background:The harmful effect of smoking  on oral tissues is well reported.The effects of smoking on periodontal health statues of a group of cement factory workers have been compared with the non smokers.

Methodology: A sample of 175 male subjects were involved 78(44.57%) subject were smokers. Each subject was examined in the medical room in the factory. By using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score. 

Result: The prevalence of periodontal disease among the study subject was 100%. Bleeding and calculus were most frequent observed in the smoker and non smoker workers with statistical difference (P>0.05).On the other hand the shallow(74.35%) and deep pocket(23.08%)were observed more in smokers. with significant differences (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The maintaining of oral health was neglected by factory workers. Smoking was evidently factor of risk for high levels of periodontal disease. These observation emphasize the need of periodontal treatment in the cement factory workers.


Keywords


Smokers, Community periodontal Index, periodontal health status

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sakthi S, John J, Saravanan S, Pradeep R. Periodontal health status and treatment need among building construction workers in Chennai, India. J Int Oral Health 2011; 3(6): 7-14.

Tanner A, Kent R, Van Dyke T, Sonis S and Murray L. Clinical and other Risk Indicators for Early Periodontitis in Adults. J periodontal. 2005; Vol. 76:573-81.

Hyman J and Reid B. Epidemiological Risk factors for periodontal Loss among Adult in the united states. J Clin periodontal. 2003;30:230-237.

Amarasena N, Ekanayaka A, Herath L and Miyazaki H. Tobacco use and oral hygiene as Risk Indicators for periodontitis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol.2003;Vol.31:158-160.

Razali M, Palmer R, Coward P and Wilson R. Retrospective study of Periodontal Disease Severity in Smokers and Non smokers. British Dent Journal .2005;198:495-498.

James J, Sayers N, Drucker D and Hul I. Effect of Tobacco products on the Attachment and Growth of periodontal Ligament Fibroblast. J Periodontal. 1999;70:518-525.

Genco R, Current View of Risk Factors for periodontal disease. J Periodontal.1996;67:1041-1049.

Muller H, Stadermann S and Heinecke A. Gingival Reecession in Smokers and Non smokers with Minimal Periodontal Disease. J Clin Periodontal.2002;29:129-136.

Marget J, Risk factors for periodontal disease. The Richmond institute for continuing Dental education.2007;6(2):1-4.

Pejcic A, Zivkovic V. Histological Examination of Gingiva Treated with Low level Laser in Periodontal therapy. J Oral Laser.2007;7:37-43.

World Health Organization. Oral health surveys: basic methods. 4th ed. Geneva: ORH/EPID; 1997.

Haber J, Wattles J, Crowley M, Mandell R, Joshipura K and Kent R. Evidence for Cigarette smoking as a major risk factor for periodontitis. J Periodontal 1993;64:16-2

Salvi G, Ramseier C, Sigrist L, Awedowa E and Lang N. Experimental gingivitis in cigarette smokers. A clinical and microbiological study. J Clin Periodontal 2005;32:441-47.

Bozkurt F, Ay Z, Sutcu R, Delibas N and Demirel R. Gingival crevicular fluid leptin levels in periodontitis patients with long-term and heavy smoking . J Periodontol.2006;77(4):634-40.

Calsina G, Ramon J and Echevernia J. Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues. J Clin Periodontol 2002;29:771-76.

Ahlberg J, Tuominen R and Murtomaa H. Periodontal status among male industrial workers in Southern Finland with or without access to subsidized dental care. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1996;54(3):166-70.

Shizukuishi S, Hayashi N, Tamagawa H, Hanioka T, Maruyama S, Takeshita T. Life style and periodontal health status of Japanese Factory workers. Ann Periodontol.1998; 3: 303-11.

Sood M, Blaggana A, Vohra P, Saraf B. Periodontal status of smoker and non smoker Ceramic Factory Workers. J ID, 20111;(3):1-7




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26477/idj.v39i2.127

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.