Effects of Estradiol, Progesterone and Testosterone on Oral Health Status and Gender Identification of Fetus in Women During Pregnancy

Hajer Ibrahem Abdulla, Zeena Helmi, Zena kamel kadhem


Background: The metabolism and immunology of the body are modified by hormones like progesterone, estrogen and
testosterone as well as other local factors as dental plaque and calculus. The hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy may be
associated with pregnancy gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and pregnancy tumor in the presence of local factors that may accentuate
the gingival response.
Aims of the study:
1.Find out the association between the oral health status and endogenous sex steroid salivary hormones level.
2.The assessment of fetus gender and compare the clinical and biochemical variables of pregnant with gingivitis who are carrying
male fetuses and with those who are carrying female fetuses.
Patients and methods: This study was done in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, from
February 2013 to July 2013. Clinical examination had been done for (53) study pregnant women with gingivitis and/or pregnancy
tumor at the gestational age range (20-33) and (25) pregnant women with healthy gingiva at gestational age range (22-31), age
matched control subjects for check number of gestational age and fetus gender with the consultation of specialist by sonography
and confirm the gender in postpartum follow up visits. Oral clinical examination including an assessment of gingival inflammation
(GI), plaque amount (PLI), gingival bleeding by (GBI), presence of pregnancy tumor, dental status (DMFT), and salivary flow rate
(SFR) had also been done. Samples of whole unstimulated (resting) saliva were collected from all participants then investigated for
sex steroids salivary hormonal levels of Estradiol, Progesterone and Testosterone.
Results: Gingivitis pregnant and pregnant controls were matched in age. Oral health measurements including: GI, PI and GBI were
significantly higher in study compared to controls, while SFR were less in study compared to controls and DMFT showed no significant
difference between study and controls. Sex steroids salivary hormonal levels of Estradiol, Progesterone and Testosterone in
study pregnant women were higher than that of controls. Prevalence of gingivitis among samples population of present study is
67.9% and the percentage of the presence of pregnancy tumor is 3.8%. PLI significantly correlated with elevated salivary hormones
level of Testosterone and Estradiol and non-significantly correlated with salivary hormone level of progesterone.GI significantly
correlated with elevated salivary hormones level of Estradiol, Progesterone and Testosterone. GBI significantly correlated with elevated
salivary Estradiol hormone level and non-significantly correlated with salivary hormones level of Testosterone and Progesterone.
Pregnancy tumor significantly correlated with elevated salivary hormones level of Estradiol, Progesterone and Testosterone.
Pregnant women with gingivitis who were carrying females’ fetuses showed significant elevated salivary hormone level of Estradiol
and significant elevated GI, PLI and GBI than pregnant women with gingivitis who are carrying males’ fetuses and show non-significant
differences in salivary hormones level of Progesterone and Testosterone and non-significant differences in SFR and DMFT.


Estradiol, Progesterone, Testosterone, pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumor, saliva, fetus gender.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26477/idj.v36i2.15


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