Evaluation of Interleukine-1β (IL-1β) levels in Plasma of Patients with Periodontal Dis- eases and their correlation with Body Mass Index

Sulav M. Abdulqader, Haween T. Nanakaly

Abstract


Background and objectives: Obesity is emerging as a significant health problem worldwide and risk factor for various systemic diseases. Periodontal disease is multifactorial inflammatory disease. Recent evidence points to a link between body mass index and periodontitis, and role of Interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) has been suggested.

Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty subjects were divided into two groups: 80 healthy subjects as a control group and 80 patients with periodontitis. Their age ranged from 25 to 45 years. Then subjects of both groups were subdivided in to four subgroups based on the WHO classification of Body Mass Index(BMI): group A; Under-weight (BMI< 18.5kg/m2), group B; Normal- weight (BMI 18.5-24.95 kg/m2), group C; Over-weight (BMI 25-29.95kg/m2) and group D; Obese (BMI >30 5kg/m2). Full-mouth periodontal assessment was performed and Clinical periodontal parameters included clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD). The quantitative assay of IL-1β was performed in serum, using an ELISA method. The BMI, IL-1β levels in plasma and periodontal Disease Index (PDI) scores were assessed, compared and correlated.

Results: In patients with periodontitis, significantly higher clinical periodontal parameters (CAL and PPD) and IL-1β levels were found in obese subgroup as compared to other subgroups. Also, a significant and positive correlation was seen between BMI and IL-1β, CAL and PPD, while correlation coefficient between mean scores of PPD, CAL and mean concentration of IL-1β in sera were statistically highly significant and negative respectively. In control subgroups, a highly significant increased level of IL-1β was ob- served in sera of obese subgroup when compared to other subgroups.

Conclusion: Increase in the level of IL-1 β in sera and an increase in the severity of periodontitis seen in subjects with higher body mass index. This may indicate that obesity may be detrimental to the periodontal health of individuals.


Keywords


Periodontitis; BMI, Interleukine-1β (IL-1β).

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26477/idj.v34i2.165

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