Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of New Endodontic Files in Reciprocal vs. Rotational Motion

Makdad Chakmakchi, Ashraf Salim Alchalabi


Objectives: To evaluate the flexural fatigue resistance of WaveOne Primary and Protaper NEXT X2 NiTi files used in reciprocating and rotation motions.
Materials and methods: A 20 files, 25mm long for use in reciprocating [Group 1: WaveOne Primary, n=10] and continuous rotation [Group 2: Protaper NEXT X2, n=10] were selected. All instruments were operated in a static model for cyclic fatigue testing which was conducted in a device that allowed for a reproducible simulation of an instrument confined in a curved canal. The instruments were activated by a torque-controlled motor [X-smart plus, Dentspy Maillefer] using the preset program WaveOne ALL for the WaveOne instruments and the preset program for the Ppotaper NEXT X2 instruments. All instruments were rotated until fracture occurred. The number of cycles to failure [NCF] for each instrument was calculated. The length of the fractured file tip was mea- sured. NCF data were statistically analyzed by Student t-test.

Results: The statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant differences [p<0.001] between two groups. WaveOne primary instruments were associated with a significantly greater NCF.
Conclusions: The test results showed significantly increased cyclic fatigue resistance of the file with reciprocal motions compared to continuous rotation. No differences were found between the lengths of the fractured segment.


Full Text:



Parashos P, Messer HH. Rotary NiTi instrument fracture and its consequences J Endod 2006; 32: 1031–43.

TaschieriS,NecchiS,RosanoG,etal.Advantagesandlimits of nickel-titanium instruments for root canal preparation: a review of the current literature Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2005; 115 (11): 1000–5.

Walia HM, Brantley WA, Gerstein H. An initial investigation of the bending and torsional properties of Nitinol root canal files J Endod 1988; 14: 346–51.

Sattapan B, Palamara JE, Messer HH. Torque during canal instrumentation using rotary nickel-titanium files J Endod 2000; 26: 156–60.

Parashos P, Gordon I, Messer HH. Factors influencing defects of rotary nickel titanium endodontic instruments after clinical use J Endod 2004; 30: 722–5.

Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: a review J Endod 2004; 30: 559–65.

Lee M, Versluis A, Kim B, et al. Correlation between experimental cyclic fatigue resistance and numerical stress analysis for nickel-titanium rotary files J Endod 2011; 37: 1152-7.

Saber SE. Factors influencing the fracture of rotary nickel- titanium instruments. ENDO ]Lond Engl[ 2008; 2: 273- 283.

Saber SE. The effect of instrument material, taper and degree of root canal curvature on cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel- titanium instruments. ENDO ]Lond Engl[ 2013; 1: 59-64.

De-Deus G, Moreira EJ, Lopes HP, Elias CN. Extended cyclic fatigue life of F2 ProTaper instruments used in reciprocating movement. Int Endod J 2010; 43: 1063–8.

You SY, Bae KS, Baek SH, Kum KY, Shon WJ, Lee W. Lifespan of one nickel-titanium rotary file with reciprocating motion in curved root canals J Endod 2010; 36: 1991–4.

Varela-Patino P, Ibanez-Parraga A, Rivas-Mundina B, Cantatore G, Otero XL, Martin-Biedma B. Alternating versus continuous rotation: a comparative study of the effect on instrument life J Endod 2010; 36: 157–9.

De-Deus G, Brandao MC, Barino B, Di Giorgi K, Fidel RA, Luna AS. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the single-file ProTaper F2 technique under reciprocating movement Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 110: 390–4.

Franco V, Fabiani C, Taschieri S, Malentacca A, Bortolin M, Del Fabbro M. Investigation on the shaping ability of nickel–titanium files when used with a reciprocating motion J Endod 2011; 37: 1398–1401.

Paque F, Zehnder M, De-Deus G. Microtomography based comparison of reciprocating single-file F2 ProTaper technique versus rotary full sequence J Endod 2011; 37: 1394–7.

You SY, Kim HC, Bae KS, Baek SH, Kum KY, Lee W. Shaping ability of reciprocating motion in curved root canals: a comparative study with micro-computed tomography J Endod 2011; 37: 1296–300.

Plotino G, Grande M, Testarelli L and Gambarini G. Cyclic fatigue of Reciproc and WaveOne reciprocating instruments Int Endod J 2012; 45: 614-8.

Schneider SW. A comparison of canal preparations in straight and curved root canals. Oral Surg 1971; 32: 271–5. 19. Pedulla E, Grande NM, Plotino G, Gambarini G, Rapisarda E. Influence of continuous or reciprocating motion on cyclic fatigue resistance of 4 different nickel-titanium

rotary instruments J Endod 2013; 39: 258-61.

Kim HC, Cheung GS, Lee CJ, Kim BM, Park JK, Kang SI. Comparison of forces generated during root canal shaping and residual stresses of three nickel-titanium rotary files using three-dimensional finite-elements analysis J Endod

; 34: 743–7.

Grande NM, Plotino G, Pecci R, Bedini R, Malagnino VA,

Somma F. Cyclic fatigue resistance and three-dimensional analysis of instruments from two nickel titanium rotary systems Int Endod 2006; J 10: 755–63.

Pruett JP, Clement DJ, Carnes DL. Cyclic fatigue testing of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments J Endod 1997; 23: 77–85.

Yao JH, Schwartz SA, Beeson TJ. Cyclic fatigue of three types of rotary nickel-titanium files in a dynamic model J Endod 2006; 32: 55–7.

Gambarini G. Cyclic fatigue of Profile rotary instruments after prolonged clinical use Int Endod J 2001; 34: 386–9. 25. Oh SR, Chang SW, Lee Y, Gu Y. A comparison of nickel- titanium rotary instruments manufactured using different methods and cross-sectional areas: ability to resist cyclic fatigue Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod

; 109: 622–8. 26. PlotinoG,GrandeNM,CordaroM,etal.Areviewofcyclic

fatigue testing of nickel-titanium rotary instruments J

Endod 2009; 35: 1469–76.

Li UM, Lee BS, Shin CT, et al. Cyclic fatigue of endodontic

nickel titanium rotary instruments: static and dynamic tests

J Endod 2002; 28: 448–51.

Wan J, Rasimick BJ, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. A

comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance in reciprocating and rotary nickel-titanium instruments Aust Endod J 2011; 37: 122–7.

Gavini G, Caldeira CL, Akisue E, et al. Resistance to flexural fatigue of Reciproc R25 files under continuous rotation and reciprocating movement J Endod 2012; 38: 684–7.

Webber J, Machtou P, Pertot W, Kuttler S, Ruddle C, West J. The WaveOne single-file reciprocating system. Roots 2011; 1: 28–33.

Cheung GS, Zhang EW, Zheng YF. A numerical method for predicting the bending fatigue life of NiTi and stainless steel root canal instruments Int Endod J 2011; 44: 357–61.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright by Iraqi Dental Journal

ISSN (Print): 2307-4779 | ISSN (Online): 2411-9741